SPOILER WARNING The following notes give away some of the plot.
One of the visual motifs which runs through After Life turns out in retrospect to be a kind of running gag. Limbo staff-members passing through the corridor on the upper ﬂoor of the institution (evidently a former schoolhouse) look up at a skylight and see, variously, the full moon, daylight, falling snow or a crescent moon. But the ‘moons’ are revealed to be illusions: just shapes formed by a hole in the skylight’s cover. This relates to something that section chief Nakamura says to Shiori after she has had a row with Kawashima. The moon is fascinating, he says, because our perception of it changes with the available light, whereas the moon itself never changes.
Simple illusions can generate potent images and reactions; everything depends on how you see it. Together, though, they offer a philosophical conundrum with clear relevance to the ways ﬁlms are made and seen. Exactly the same can be said of Koreeda’s ﬁlm itself, which deals directly and straightforwardly with all kinds of human issues – the psychological processes of constructing and editing memories, emotional exchange versus dependency, the elusive line between solitude and loneliness – but somehow also adds up to a meditation on cinema as a medium.
The ﬁlm’s genius – and, no doubt, a reason for its popular success in Japan, the US and elsewhere – lies in the way it integrates very disparate materials in an organic whole.
The ﬁctional premise that a civil-service bureaucracy awaits us when we die is not original (the ﬁlm’s title in Japan, Wonderful Life, acknowledges that Frank Capra, amongst others, got there ﬁrst) but Koreeda uses it in a way that no ﬁlmmaker has done before: to interweave ﬁction and non-ﬁction so that each invigorates the other. Documentary material of purely anecdotal interest (for example, a 78-year-old woman’s memories of dancing for her supper in the cafés of Aoyama in the ’20s) is far more resonant in this ﬁctional context than it would be otherwise; and ﬁctional material (for example, a boring 70-year-old man’s belated realisation that his ‘average’ marriage meant the world to him) gains strength and credibility from being intercut with real-life testimonies.
At the same time, the ﬁlm’s ﬁction/non-ﬁction interface reﬂects the premise that memories can be recreated in a ﬁlm studio with results so ‘real’ that those remembering can be transported to another plane. Limbo’s sound-stage is decidedly low-tech, and the ﬁlm has a lot of fun watching technicians simulate a solo ﬂight in a Cessna with cotton-wool clouds or a tram ride on a hot, breezy day with off screen manpower providing the rocking motion. Much effort goes into fabricating images which will connote the senses beyond ﬁlm’s reach: touch, smell, taste. By playing with the ontology of images, Koreeda also blurs the distinction between life and cinema.
Much of this must be very personal to Koreeda, who came to ﬁction ﬁlms from a decade making television documentaries, several of which reﬂect the impossibility of remaining objective and detached when ﬁlming prickly human subjects. The ﬁlm expresses the awkward tension between detachment and engagement in metaphorical terms as Mochizuki’s struggle to maintain his virginal cool when brought face to face with the realisation that he represented ‘happiness’ to someone else. This realisation prompts him to choose his own memory (something he has been unable or unwilling to do for the 50-odd years since his physical death), but it’s a memory which bucks the system: Mochizuki chooses to go out remembering not only his earthly engagement to a woman who married someone else after he died but also the team camaraderie and work from his time in Limbo, not to mention the young woman who adored him there. The tangle of emotional and cinematic issues here is almost mystical, but the ﬁlm’s simplicity and transparent sincerity make it easy to accept. Koreeda’s unique achievement is that he has turned a deeply personal and private problematic into a mirror for every viewer’s own fears, desires and memories. ‘Masterpiece’ seems not too strong a word.
Tony Rayns, Sight and Sound, October 1999
Koreeda on ‘After Life’
The film goes out of its way to avoid religious connotations, but some critics and audiences seem to want it to be religious. For instance, Donald Richie has written of it as a Buddhist film. How do you feel about that?
I deliberately stripped Japanese (or any other) religious connotations from the film. That was part of the original concept. You know, I love what Lubitsch did in Heaven Can Wait when he exploited all the comic possibilities inherent in death. I’m not a Christian, but that movie didn’t seem to me to be about Christianity. It was just a comic set-up, and that’s one reason why I chose the fact of death as the fictional framework for my own film. I wouldn’t go so far as to call After Life a light comedy, but I’m not aware of any other Japanese film which has approached the subject of death in this mildly comic way. Whenever people ask, I always say it’s not a religious film, but if someone who has a religion chooses to bring it to this film, then that’s up to them. It’s not for me to tell them they’re wrong.
Is there anything specifically Japanese about the idea of getting to grips with life within the context of death?
Not that I’m aware of. I think it’s more likely that it reflects my own approach: the thinking I’ve done, the filming I’ve done, the living of my own life. Actually, I was more conscious of using fiction as a framework to reconsider documentary than I was of using death as a framework to reconsider life. I was most interested in nestling fiction and documentary next to each other.
Much of the film is quite funny, but the scenes which get the biggest laughs are the ones in the studio where the memories are being recreated and filmed. You stress the makeshift way the staff produce their visual effects in these recreations. Do you see that as a satire on ‘illusionist’ filmmaking in general?
There’s definitely a certain ambivalence behind those scenes, but I didn’t set out to satirise film craft. The cheapness of the effects was obviously intentional, but for me that was an expression of warmth towards what was going on. Starting from the premise of ‘Hello, you’re dead…’ we’ve pulled these stories out of these people. But I knew something would stay buried, undiscovered, if people just talked about the past. By marrying these cheap recreations with the memories as recounted, I knew there would be leaps into other areas. And I was right: you can see the way people revise their memories, add details, bring in forgotten emotions. Still, it’s funny to see the film’s studio staff getting so totally serious about balls of cotton wool and wondering whether they’ll simulate clouds accurately or not. It makes me incredibly happy when audiences laugh at those scenes.
The studio recreations of the memories also raise the question of film’s limits. People’s memories relate to smell, taste and touch, none of which film can reproduce…
My understanding that we remember things with all five senses was endlessly reaffirmed when we recorded the 500 interviews. People remember a touch, a taste, something that brushed their skin. In the 100 years that cinema has been around I feel it has constantly been straining against the limitation of being a largely visual medium; there’s something about the way we watch films which pushes that boundary. But in any case, in After Life the memories recreated on film are not the ultimate destination. What really matters is what happens inside the individuals when they relive the memory, and the film recreation is only an aid.
When Mochizuki agrees to identify a memory of his own, it seems that the colleagues who are filming him are part of his memory. Is that so? And if so, what does that imply about the process?
That’s exactly the core of the film, but it’s the first time I’ve been asked that question! Yes, it’s true: Mochizuki’s memory includes not only the 20 years he was alive but also the so years of service in limbo. His ‘memory’ is an acceptance and affirmation of the time spent in the way-station as well.
I actually had very ambitious plans for that particular sequence. Given the film’s governing metaphors, I saw Mochizuki’s image of himself – the memory he chooses to have filmed – as being equivalent to documentary and the image of the crew filming him as being equivalent to fiction. That’s pretty much the way I think real memory works: a combination of fact and fiction. The other thing I hoped to get across was the impact on the other staff members of seeing themselves reflected within someone else’s memory. My producer Sato Shiho and I had exactly that experience once while we were making one of the television documentaries. It’s very salutary to become aware of being part of someone else’s experience.
I got the sense that Mochizuki was in some ways your self-portrait. Is that so?
Yes, but I’m not reflected only in Mochizuki. Parts of me are also carried by the other counsellors – they all have little burdens of me to carry! And of course in my own biography there are also ‘fictional’ elements.
Interview by Tony Rayns, Sight & Sound, March 1999
AFTER LIFE (WANDAFURU RAIFU)
Director: Hirokazu Koreeda
Production Companies: TV Man Union, Engine Film
Executive Producer: Yutaka Shigenobu
Planning Producer: Masahiro Yasuda
Producers: Shiho Sato, Masayuki Akieda
Line Producer: Osamu Shiraishi
Post-production Supervisor: Shuichi Kakesu
Researchers: Yu Nakamura, Takahiro Mitsuyoshi, Yuka Tashiro
1st Assistant Director: Iwao Takahashi
2nd Assistant Directors: Naohiro Asano, Miwa Nishikawa, Teiitsu Kin
Screenplay: Hirokazu Koreeda
Director of Photography: Yutaka Yamazaki
Director of Photography (Re-creation): Masayoshi Sukita
Lighting: Yuzuru Sato
Lighting (Re-creation): Shigeki Nakamura
Editor: Hirokazu Koreeda
Art Directors: Toshihiro Isomi, Hideo Gunji
Stylists: Koichiro Yamamoto, Kazuko Yamamoto
Wardrobe: Shigeru Aoki
Hair/Make-up: Mutsuki Sakai
Titles: Hideki Takeuchi
Colour Timer: Masayuki Mitsuhashi
Opticals: Tetsuo Kaneko
Music: Yasuhiro Kasamatsu
Sound Design/Recording Engineer: Osamu Takizawa
Sound Effects: Kenji Shibasaki
Arata (Takashi Mochizuki)
Erika Oda (Shiori Satonaka)
Susumu Terajima (Satoru Kawashima)
Takashi Naito (Takuro Sugie)
Kei Tani (Ken-nosuke Nakamura)
Taketoshi Naito (Ichiro Watanabe)
Sadao Abe (Ichiro Watanabe, student days)
Toru Yuri (Kisuke Shoda)
Kazuko Shirakawa (Nobuko Amano)
Yusuke Iseya (Yusuke Iseya)
Hisako Hara (Kiyo Nishimura)
Sayaka Yoshino (Kana Yoshimoto)
Kotaro Shiga (Kenji Yamamoto)
Natsuo Ishido (Kyoko Tsukamoto, student days)
Kyôko Kagawa (Kyoko Watanabe)
Akio Yokoyama (doorkeeper)
Tomomi Hiraiwa (announcer)
Yasuhiro Kasamatsu (composer)
100 YEARS OF JAPANESE CINEMA
After Life (Wandafuru raifu)
Wed 1 Dec 18:10; Fri 10 Dec 20:40; Mon 13 Dec 20:40; Wed 29 Dec 14:20
In the Realm of the Senses (Ai no corrida)
Wed 1 Dec 20:50; Sat 11 Dec 20:45; Wed 22 Dec 18:20
Funeral Parade of Roses (Bara no sôretsu)
Thu 2 Dec 18:00 (+ pre-recorded intro by Professor Mitsuyo Wada-Marciano, Kyoto University); Tue 14 Dec 14:30; Mon 27 Dec 15:50
The Shifting Spaces of Modern Japanese Cinema
Thu 2 Dec 20:40
Woman of the Dunes (Suna no Onna)
Fri 3 Dec 18:00 (+ intro by Espen Bale, BFI National Archive); Sat 18 Dec 17:30
Tokyo Drifter (Tôkyô nagaremono)
Fri 3 Dec 20:50; Thu 23 Dec 18:30
Black Rain (Kuroi ame)
Sat 4 Dec 17:50; Tue 28 Dec 18:15
Straits of Hunger (aka A Fugitive from the Past) (Kiga kaikyô)
Sun 5 Dec 16:30; Sat 18 Dec 14:30
Woman of the Lake (Onna no mizûmi)
Mon 6 Dec 18:00; Wed 15 Dec 20:50
Silence Has No Wings (Tobenai chinmoku)
Mon 6 Dec 20:55; Wed 15 Dec 18:00
The Long Darkness (Shinobugawa)
Wed 8 Dec 20:40; Sun 19 Dec 12:40
Pale Flower (Kawaita hana)
Thu 9 Dec 18:00; Sun 19 Dec 18:20
Death By Hanging (Kôshikei)
Fri 10 Dec 17:50; Fri 17 Dec 18:00
Muddy River (Doro no kawa)
Sun 12 Dec 11:50 (+ intro by season co-programmer Alexander Jacoby); Thu 23 Dec 20:40
The Demon (Kichiku)
Sun 12 Dec 14:50 (+ intro by season co-programmer Alexander Jacoby); Sun 19 Dec 16:00
The Man Who Stole the Sun (Taiyô wo nusunda otoko)
Sun 12 Dec 18:00; Thu 16 Dec 20:10
Mon 13 Dec 18:00 (+ intro by Catherine Wheatley, King’s College London); Fri 17 Dec 20:45; Tue 28 Dec 15:10
Philosophical Screens: Tampopo
Mon 13 Dec 20:15 Blue Room
The Emperor’s Naked Army Marches On (Yuki Yukite, Shingun)
Sat 18 Dec 11:40; Mon 27 Dec 18:20
Sat 18 Dec 20:35; Wed 29 Dec 20:30
Fire Festival (Himatsuri)
Mon 20 Dec 17:50; Mon 27 Dec 13:20
Suzaku (Moe No Suzaku)
Tue 21 Dec 17:45; Thu 30 Dec 21:00
Shall We Dance? (Shall we dansu?)
Tue 21 Dec 20:30; Thu 30 Dec 17:40
Wed 22 Dec 20:50; Tue 28 Dec 12:10
In partnership wtih
With special thanks to
With the kind support of:
Janus Films/The Criterion Collection, Kadokawa Corporation, Kawakita Memorial Film Institute, Kokusai Hoei Co. Ltd, Nikkatsu Corporation, Toei Co. Ltd
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Programme notes and credits compiled by the BFI Documentation Unit
Notes may be edited or abridged
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